A city of west-central Russia on the Volga River east of Moscow. Founded in 1401, the modern city became the capital of a powerful Tartar khanate in 1455 but was conquered by Czar Ivan IV in 1552. In the 18th century it was an outpost of Russian colonization to the east. Population: 1,110,000.
, Elia 1909-2003.
Turkish-born American stage and film director whose credits include Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) and the movies On the Waterfront (1954) and East of Eden (1955).