Argentina had already undertaken to extend her northern railway from Jujuy to the Bolivian frontier town of Tupiza, and the Peruvian Corporation had constructed for the Bolivian government a short line (S4 m.
An almost uninterrupted warfare followed, from July 1809 till August 1825, with alternate successes on the side of the Spanish or royalist and the South American or patriot forces, - the scene of action lying chiefly between the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy and the shores of Lake Titicaca.
In 1816 the Spanish general Laserna, having been appointed commander-inchief of Upper Peru, made an attempt to invade the Argentine provinces, intending to march on Buenos Aires, but he was completely foiled in this by the activity of the irregular gaucho troops of Salta and Jujuy, and was forced to retire.
In the provinces of Tucuman, Salta and Jujuy the main industry is sugar growing and manufacture.
In 1840 he invaded Buenos Aires at the head of troops raised chiefly in the province of Entre Rios; but he was defeated at Santa Fe, then at Lujan, and finally was captured in Jujuy and shot, 1841.