Intermarriages had not been uncommon between Frank and Visigoth, but they had rarely led to any other result than to subjct the Arian ladies who were sent from Spain, or the Catholic ladies who came from France, to blows and murder by their husbands and their husbands families.
The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology, language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay (i.e.
He was born on the 11 th of November 1661, and was the only surviving son of his father's two marriages - a child of old age and disease, in whom the constant intermarriages of the Habsburgs had developed the family type to deformity.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
Their numbers constantly increased and were reinforced by new immigrants, and pushing inland in search of fresh mineral-bearing areas, they contracted frequent intermarriages with the Dyaks and other non-Mahommedan natives.