Holy Roman emperor and king of Germany (1056–1106) who struggled for power with Pope Gregory VII. Twice excommunicated, Henry appointed an antipope (1084) to crown him emperor, invaded Italy, and was dethroned by his sons.
Known as “Henry Bolingbroke.” 1366?–1413.
King of England (1399–1413). Son of John of Gaunt and grandson of Edward III, he was banished from England by Richard II, who confiscated his estate. Henry returned, raised an army, and compelled Richard to abdicate. Parliament confirmed Henry's claim to the throne, thus establishing the Lancastrian line.
Known as “Henry of Navarre.” 1553–1610.
King of France (1589–1610) who founded the Bourbon royal line, successfully waged war against Spain (1595–1598), and gave political rights to French Protestants in the Edict of Nantes (1598).