With astonishing, and indeed misplaced, magnanimity, Richard pardoned his brother, when he made a grovelling submission, and restored him to his lordship of Ireland and to a great part of his English lands.
When at last the inevitable revolt came in 1820 he grovelled to the insurgents as he had done to his parents, descending to the meanest submissions while fear was on him, then intriguing and, when detected, grovelling again.
Yet so many of his subjects were discontented that he dared not trust himself to the chances of war, and, when the fleet of King Philip was ready to sail, he surprised the world by making a sudden and grovelling submission to the pope.
Ferdinand, instead of retiring to Andalusia and making himself the rallying point of national resistance, had gone to ]\Iadrid, where he was at thc mercy of Murats troops and Whence he wrote grovelling letterf to Napoleon.
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