Since his time the duc de Luynes, Lartet, Wilson, Hull, Blanckenhorn, Gautier, Libbey, Masterman and Schmidt, to name but a few, have made contributions to our knowledge of this lake; but still many problems present themselves for solution.
Gautier and R.
Gautier (Geneva, 1878); the great work, Ihya ul-` Ulum (" Revival of the sciences") (Bulaq, 1872; Cairo, 1889); see a commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols.
It has been held that the chansons de geste were formed by joining together " bunches " of these earlier cantilenes, and this was the view taken by Leon Gautier in the first edition of Les Epopees frangaises (1865).
But he admits that " some of the old poems may have been borrowed from tradition, without any intermediary " (ibid.); and when it is considered that the traces of the " cantilenes " are slight, and that the degree in which they inspired the later poetry must be a matter of impression rather than of proof, it does not surprise us to find other scholars (notably Paul Meyer) attaching less importance to them, or even doubting their existence.2 When Leon Gautier shows how history passes into legend, and legend again into romance, we are reminded of the difference 1 Die exegetischen Scholien der Ilias, p. vii.