- region of SE Poland & NW Ukraine: formerly an Austrian crown land
- region of NW Spain: 11,365 sq mi (29,435 sq km); pop. 2,825,000: a former medieval kingdom
- A historical region of central Europe in southeast Poland and western Ukraine. An independent principality after 1087, it was conquered by Russians in the 12th century and later passed to Poland and Austria. The territory was returned to Poland after World War I, and the eastern portion was ceded to the USSR after World War II.
- A region and ancient kingdom of northwest Spain on the Atlantic Ocean south of the Bay of Biscay. Exploited by the Romans for its mineral resources, it later became a Goth kingdom and a stronghold of the Moors.