The redpoll (Acanthis linaria), chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) and greenfinch (Chloris chloris) are established in New Zealand, the last named being a pest there, as is also the cirl-bunting (Emberiza cirlus) - the yellow-hammer (E.
Fringilla), a name applied (but almost always in composition - as bullfinch, chaffinch, goldfinch, hawfinch, &c.) to a great many small birds of the order Passeres, and now pretty generally accepted as that of a group or family - the Fringillidae of most ornithologists.
The linnets, through the genus Leucosticte, lead to the mountain-finches (Montifringilla), and the redpolls through the siskins (Chrysomitris) to the goldfinches (Carduelis); and these last again to the hawfinches, one group of which (Coccothraustes) is apparently not far distant from the chaffinches (Fringilla proper), and the other (Hesperiphona) seems to be allied to the greenfinches (Ligurinus) .
The handsome and sprightly Fringilla coelebs 3 is common throughout the whole of Europe.
Goldfink l), the Fringilla carduelis of Linnaeus and the Carduelis elegans of later authors, an extremely well-known bird found over the greater parts of Europe and North Africa, and eastwards to Persia and Turkestan.