In the United States and Scotland rectangular pits secured by timber framings are still common, but the tendency the pressure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere when it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to that of the working space below when it is intended to communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken in the bottom.
In buildings wide in proportion to their height it is the ordinary practice to make the floors sufficiently rigid to transfer the lateral strains to the walls, and to brace the wall framings to resist them.
The arrangement of the building and floor framings is in a great measure governed by the architectural effect sought and by the arrangement and proper planning of the interior according to the intended uses; the positions of columns, girders and floor beams are usually the result of particular requirements, and unless complicated and expensive framing is to be expected the distance between columns must be kept within the limits of simple girder construction.
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