Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
This arrangement can be duplexed in the way already explained, by providing differential relays and arranging for the outgoing currents to divide differentially through the two relays at each end.
It can also be duplexed or repeated similar to any other telegraph system.
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