Disease and Illness - Ologies & -Isms Definition
acetonemia a condition caused by elevated levels of acetone in the blood. achromatosis a disease characterized by an absence of pigmentation, as albinism. acidosis a condition of the blood in which the alkali reserve is lower than normal. Also called acid intoxication, autointoxication. —acidotic, adj. acromegaly a disease resulting from abnormal activity of the pituitary gland, causing bones of the extremities to become enlarged. —acromegalic, adj. adynamia loss of strength occasioned by a disease or illness; weakness. —adynamic, adj. aeroembolism a condition caused by the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the blood as a result of a sudden lowering of atmospheric pressure, as when flying at high altitude or rising too rapidly from a deep underwater dive. aeroneurosis a stress condition of aviators, manifested in such physical symptoms as stomach pains, digestive problems, etc. aerophagy erratic gulping of air. aetiology etiology. ageusia the partial or complete loss of the sense of taste. Also ageustia. alkalosis a condition in which the alkali content or reserve of the body is above normal. aluminosis a respiratory disease caused by prolonged inhalation of aluminum particles. amygdalitis inflammation of one or both tonsils; tonsillitis. Anabasis the progress of a disease, from onset to finish. analepsis, analepsy Obsolete, a form of epileptic attack. anaphylaxis extreme sensitivity to an antigen, causing secretion of histamine and attendant adverse reactions, sometimes fatal. —anaphylactic, adj. anemia, anaemia 1. a lack of blood in the body. 2. a low proportion of red cells in the blood. —anemic, anaemic, adj. anemotrophy insufficient nutrients in the blood. anergy 1. a lack of strength. 2. the failure of the body to respond to an allergen or antigen. anesis the remission of disease symptoms. ankylosis the stiffening of the joints of the body, a result of the formation of a fibrous or bony union. anorexia a complete lack of appetite. —anorectic, anorexic, adj. anorexia nervosa a neurotic disorder charaeterized by refusal to eat and abnormal fear of obesity, seen especially in adolescent girls. —anorectic, anorexic, adj. anoxia a condition charaeterized by insufficient oxygen in the tissues. anthracosis a disease of coal miners caused by the inhalation of coal dust. antipyretic any substance or medication effective in reducing fever. Also called febrifuge. apnea, apnoea a temporary interruption in breathing. —apneal, apneic, apnoeal, apnoeic, adj. argyria a poisoning by silver or salts of silver, causing the skin to become ashy gray. arthritism 1. a predisposition to gout. 2. a predisposition to joint diseases. —arthritic, arthritical, adj. arthropathology the study of functional and structural changes made by diseases of the joints. asepticism the preverttion of infection by such means as sterilization. ataxia inability to coordinate bodily movements, especially movements of the muscles. See also order and disorder. avitaminosis any disease or illness caused by an insufficiency of one or more vitamins. —avitaminotic, adj. blennorrhea an abnormal discharge of mucous matter. —blennorheal, blennorheic, blennorhoeal, blennorhoeic, adj. bromism a poisoning produced by excessive use of bromine or bromine compounds. Also brominism, bromidism. bulimia a raging hunger or voracious appetite. —bulimic, boulimic, bulimiac, boulimiac, adj. bulimorexia, boulimorexia a psychological condition in which the person alternately gorges himself with food and fasts, often resorting to self-induced vomiting after gorging. —bulimorexic, boulimorexic, adj. cacesthesia a morbid sensation or disordered sensibility. cacoethes a chronic and overwhelming desire; mania. —cacoethic, adj. calciphilia a tendency to calcification. calenture a tropical f ever accompanied by delirium. carphology the motions of delirious or senile patients, especially motions of searching for and grasping at imaginary objects, plucking at bedclothes, etc. Also called floccilation. caseation the change in consistency of tissue to a soft, cheeselike form, as in tuberculosis. catabasis the tapering-off of a disease. —catabatic, adj. catalepsy Pathology, Psychiatry. a physical condition characterized by a loss of sensation, muscular rigidity, flxity of posture, and often by a loss of contact with surroundings. Also catalepsis. —cataleptic, adj. chalicosis a lung disease eaused by the breathing in of dust, especially stone dust. chloralism a sickness eaused by excessive use of chloral hydrate. chlorosis green sickness; a disease of girls in puberty, characterized by, among other symptoms, greenishness of the skin. chorea a disease of the nervous system characterized by jerky, involuntary movement; St. Vitus’s Dance. choromania the dancing sickness (epidemie chorea). cirrhosis a degenerative disease of the liver, marked by an excessive formation of tissue and contraction of the organ, usually brought on by chronic alcohol abuse. —cirrhotic, adj. clonism a state or condition in which the muscles undergo clonus, or rapid flexion and extension. —clonic, adj. coiyza a condition of catarrh in the nose; a head cold. cyanopathy cyanosis. cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen in the bloodstream. Also cyanopathy. —cyanotic, adj. cypridophobia an abnormal fear of venereal disease. Also called venereophobia. cytopathology Medicine. the branch of pathology that studies the effects of disease on the cellular level. —cytopathologist, n. —cytopathologic, cytopathological, adj. delitescence the sudden disappearance of symptoms or of objective signs of a lesion or disease. —delitescent, adj. diathesis a susceptibility to a certain disease. —diathetic, adj. digitalism an abnormal condition caused by excessive consumption of digitalis. diplegia a form of paralysis in which similar parts on both sides of the body are affected. —diplegic, adj. Down’s syndrome mongolism. dysidrosis a condition of abnormally excessive secretion of sweat. dysmenorrhea a condition of painful menstruation. dyspepsia an impairment of the ability to digest food, usually a discomfort aftermeals. —dyspeptic, n., adj. —dyspeptical, adj. dysphagia a condition in which there is difnculty in swallowing. —dysphagic, adj. dyspnea a condition of painful or difficult breathing. —dyspneic, dyspnoeic, adj. dystrophy, dystrophia any of various diseases characterized by weakening or defective function of the process of nutrition, resulting in degeneration of the muscles. See also food and nutrition. —dystrophic, adj. dysuria difficulty or pain in urinating. eclamptism a toxemia sometimes occurring in late pregnancy marked by Visual impairment, headache, and, occasionally, convulsions. Also eclampsia. ectasia the swelling of a hollow organ of the body, as a vein. edema abnormal collecting of fluids in the cells, tissues, and other parts of the body, causing swelling. —edematous, edematose, adj. emesis an act of vomiting. —emetic, adj. emmeniopathy disorder in the process of menstruation. empyema the collecting of pus in one of the cavities of the body, especially in the cavity containing the lungs. epidemic a disease that is widely prevalent in a particular area. —epidemical, adj. —epidemicity, n. epidemiography a work on epidemic diseases. —epidemiographer, epidemiographist, n. —epidemiographic, epidemiographical, adj. epigenesis 1. the appearance of a secondary symptom in a disease or illness. 2. the secondary symptom itself. See also biology; geology. —epigenetic, adj. epilepsy a disease of the nervous system characterized by convulsions, often leading to unconsciousness. —epileptic, n., adj. epitasis a period of violence in the course of a disease, especially a fever. epithelioma a malignant tumor, found especially on the skin, mouth, larynx, and bladder. —epitheliomatous, adj. erethism 1. an excessive irritability or sensibility to stimulation in any part of the body, especially the sexual organs. 2. a psychic disturbance characterized by irritability, emotional instability, depression, shyness, and fatigue, often caused by toxicity. —erethistic, erethitic, adj. erysipelas an infectious disease of the skin marked by inflammation and accompanied by fever. erythema an abnormal red condition of the skin, the result of capillary congestion. —erythematous, adj. erythromelalgia a disease of the hands and feet characterized by a purplish discoloration and a sensation of burning pain. —erythromelalgic, adj. erythrosis a pathological condition characterized by a reddish color of the skin and mucous membrane. etiolation paleness of color as a result of illness or exclusion from light. See also plants. etiology, aetiology 1. the branch of medical science that studies the causes of diseases and the factors underlying their spread. 2. the accumulated knowledge of disease causes. —etiologist, n. —etiologic, etiological, adj. exanthematology a treatise on or study of diseases characterized by eruptions or rashes, as smallpox or measles. —exanthematologic, exanthematological, adj. favism an acute anemia caused by the consumption of fava beans or the ingestion of fava pollen. febrifacient any substance that produces a fever. febrifuge antipyretic. floccilation carphology. fluidism a theory that accounts for all diseases as related to the state of the fluids in the body. —fluidist, n. frambesia, framboesia a contagious tropical disease. Also called yaws. gargoylism an abnormal physical condition characterized by extensive structural defects of the skeleton and by gross mental deficiency. gastricism diseases and disorders of the stomach. glossitis an inflamed condition of the tongue. —glossitic, adj. glycophilia a condition in which a small amount of glucose produces hyperglycemia. glycosuria presence of glucose in the urine, as in diabetics. —glycosuric, adj. hemiplegia a condition of paralysis in which one side of the body is affected. —hemiplegic, n., adj. hemophilia an hereditary tendency, in males, toward a deficiency in coagulation factors in the blood. —hemophiliac, haemophiliac, n., adj. hepatitis an inflamed condition of the liver. herpetography a description of any of the skin diseases collectively referred to as herpes. —herpetographical, adj. hospitalism influences that adversely affect the mental and physical health of those being hospitalized. hyperdynamia a state of excessive energy; abnormal nervous or muscular activity. hyperesthesia, hyperaesthesia 1. an excessive sensitivity of skin in a particular area. 2. an excessive sensitivity of a particular sense, especially smell. 3. a heightened sensitivity to the environment. —hyperesthetic, hyperaesthetic, adj. hyperglycemia a condition in which the level of glucose in the blood is abnormally high. —hyperglycemic, adj. hyperkinesia, hyperkinesis a condition of the body in which muscular movement is abnormally agitated. —hyperkinetic, adj. hyperpituitarism an abnormal condition of the pituitary gland that speeds up secretory activity and the growth of the endocrine organs. —hyperpituitary, adj. hyperpnea rapid breathing; abnormally rapid respiration. hyperpyrexia a condition of abnormally high fever. —hyperpyretic, adj. hyperthermia, hyperthermy an abnormally high fever, sometimes induced as treatment for disease. hyperthyroidism an abnormal thyroid condition distinguished by high metabolic rate and blood pressure and the enlargement of the thyroid. —hyperthyroid, adj. hypoglycemia a condition in which the level of glucose in the blood is abnormally low. —hypoglycemic, adj. hypopituitarism an abnormal condition of the pituitary gland that slows down the growth of and secretory activity of the endocrine organs. —hypopituitary, adj. hypothermia an abnormally low body temperature, sometimes induced as treatment for disease. hypothyroidism an abnormal thyroid condition marked by a low metabolic rate and loss of stamina. —hypothyroid, adj. hysterocatalepsy hysteria accompanied by catalepsy. hysteroepilepsy hysteria accompanied by epilepsy. —hysteroepileptic, adj. hysteropathy any disease, illness, or disorder of the uterus. hystricism an extreme form of a skin disease in which the skin is covered with horny prominences. Sometimes called the “porcupine disease.” idiopathy a disease or illness that is not occasioned or preceded by another. —idiopathic, adj. invalidism a condition of prolonged ill health. iodism a disease resulting from excessive intake of iodine or its compounds; iodine poisoning. ischialgia sciatica. isopathy 1. the theory that the product of a disease can be used to cure that same disease, as in the treatment of smallpox with substance taken from the varioles. 2. the belief that a diseased organ can be cured by eating the corresponding organ from a healthy animal. laryngitis an inflamed condition of the larynx, producing a sore throat and sometimes loss of voice. —laryngitic, adj. leontiasis a form of leprosy in which the face comes to resemble that of a lion. leucoderma a congenital deficiency of skin pigmentation that resul ts in white patches over the surface of the skin. leucorrhea a white, mucous, vaginal discharge, usually the result of an infection of the vagina. Also called the whites. lientery a variety of diarrhea in which food is excreted either partially or wholly undigested. —lienteric, adj. lionism Rare. a lionlike appearance of the face caused by leprosy; leontiasis. Iipoma a tumor consisting of fatty tissue. —lipomatous, adj. lipothymia, lipothymy fainting or a feeling of faintness; swooning; syncope. —lipothymic, lipothymous, adj. lithiasis a condition causing concretions of mineral salts, or calculi, in the pancreas, tear ducts, appendix, or kidneys. loimography the branch of medicine dealing with the description of plagues. —loimographer, n. —loimographic, loimographical, adj. loimology Rare. the study of pestilential diseases and plagues. luetism the venereal disease syphilis in any of three stages; lues. —luetic, adj. malariology Rare. the study of malaria. —malariologist, n. marasmus 1. a wasting away or atrophying of the body in the absence of disease. 2. the progressive emaciation that results from malnutrition. —marasmic, adj. maturation suppuration, or the formation and discharge of pus. —maturative, adj. melanopathia, melanopathy 1. an abnormal increase in the amount of pigment deposited in the skin or tissues. 2. any disease characterized by this condition. melanuria 1. abnormal darkness of the urine. 2. discharge of abnormally dark urine. —melanuric, adj. mercurialism chronic poisoning with mercury from either excessive medication or industrial exposure. merycism Pathology. a rare disease in which food is chewed, swallowed, and then returned to the mouth and chewed again. mescalism addiction to mescal, a narcotic derived from the cactus Lophophora williamsii. metabasis an alteration in the nature of a disease or in its treatment. Also metabola, metabole. —metabatic, adj. meteorism Medicine. a tendency to uncontrollable flatulence. Also called tympanites. molysomophobia an abnormal fear of infection. Mongolism Medicine. the abnormal condition of a child born mentally deficient, with a flattened skull, narrow slanting eyes, and a short, flat-bridged nose. Now usually called Down’s syndrome. —mongolic, adj. monopathy a disease that affects only one part of the body. myiasis any disease resulting from infestation of the body tissues or cavities by flies. myxedema a disease resulting from the decreased function of the thyroid, characterized by a slowing down of mental and physical activity and thickening and drying of the skin. —myxedematous, myxedoematous, adj. myxochondroma myxoma together with ehondroma. —myxochondromatous, adj. myxodennia an acute disease characterized by ecchymoses, softening of the skin, and the contraction of certain muscles. myxolipoma myxoma together with lipoma. myxoma a soft tumor formed of gelatinous tissue. —myxomatous, adj. myxomatosis an infectious, highly fatal, virus disease of rabbits, transmitted by mosquitoes. narcolepsy a condition characterized by an uncontrollable desire for sleep or sudden onsets of sleep. —narcoleptic, adj. nephritis any of various acute and chronic diseases of the kidneys involving inflammation, degeneration, etc. —nephritic, nephritical, adj. nicotinism the condition produced by an excessive use of tobacco. Also called tabacism, tabagism, tobaccoism. nosography the description of the symptoms and etiology of diseases. —nosographer, n. —nosographic, nosographical, adj. nosology the branch of medical science that classifies diseases. Also nosonomy. —nosologist, n. —nosologic, nosological, adj. nosomania an obsession with imagined disease. Also hypochondriacism. nosonomy nosology. nosophilia an excessive, abnormal desire to be sick. Also called pathophilia. nosophobia an abnormal fear of contracting disease. oligidria a condition in which the body is deficient in the secretion of sweat. orthopnea a respiratory ailment in which the sufferer can breathe only when standing upright. —orthopneic, adj. oxyesthesia a condition in which the senses are abnormally sharp. palatoplegia paralysis of the palate. paludism the state of having symptoms of malaria characterized by high fever and chills. pandemia, pandemy an epidemic of unusually large proportions, affecting most of the inhabitants of a certain area at the same time. —pandemic, adj., n. pangermism the theory that all disease is caused by germs. paragraphia Pathology. a form of aphasia in which the subject writes one word in place of another. —paragraphic, adj. paralysis loss of the ability to move or feel in part or all of the body, usually a result of nerve or muscle injury or dysfunction. —paralytic, paralytical, adj. paresis a state or process of partial paralysis. —paretic, adj. parkinsonism a chronic condition of the nervous system marked especially by muscle tremors. parotitis a swollen or inflamed condition of the parotid. Also called mumps. —parotitic, adj. pathogenicity the capacity of a microorganism to produce disease. —pathogenic, adj. pathology 1. the branch of medical science that studies the origin, nature, and course of diseases. 2. the conditions and processes of a disease. —pathologist, n. —pathologic, pathological, adj. pathophilia nosophilia. pathophobia an abnormal fear of disease. pertussis whooping cough. —pertussal, adj. pharmacomania a mania for medicines. pharyngism a spasm in the throat. phorology the branch of medical science that studies disease carriers and epidemic or endemic diseases. —phorologist, n. phthisiology the body of knowledge accumulated about tuberculosis. phthisiomania an abnormal interest in tuberculosis. phthisis any disease causing a wasting away of part or all of the body, especially tuberculosis; consumption. —phthisic, phthisical, adj. physiogenic somatogenic. pneumoconiosis any of various chronic lung diseases caused by the inhalation of dust particles. pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis a disease caused by the prolonged inhalation of fine siliceous dust. Also spelled pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis. pollinosis hay f ever. polyphagia Pathology. excessive appetite or excessive eating. poriomania an unconscious tendency to walk away from home; ambulatory automatism. prodromata (pl.) the symptoms that appear before the outbreak of a disease. Also called prodrome. —prodromatic, adj. psychogenesis the appearance of physical symptoms as a result of emotional problems. —psychogenic, psychogenetic, adj. psychogenicity a medical theory that the cause of some illnesses is psychological and emotional and not organic. —psychogenic, adj. psychopathy a disorder of the mind. —psychopathic, adj. pyretography a treatise describing fevers. —pyretographer, n. — pyretographic, adj. pyretology a branch of medical science that studies fevers and their treatment. pyrosis a burning feeling in the stomach and esophagus, sometimes accompanied by the belching of acid fluid; heartburn. recrudescence the return of an illness after a period of remission. —recrudescent, adj. rheumatism any disorder of the connective tissue structures of the body, especially those in the back or the extremities, characterized by pain or stiffness. —rheumatic, adj. rheumatology the branch of medical science that studies rheumatism. —rheumatologist, n. sanies a thin fluid, sometimes greenish, discharged from wounds or sores. —sanious, adj. sarcoma any of various malignant tumors formed in connective tissue. See also cancer. —sarcomatous, sarcomatoid, adj. sarcotnatosis a condition in which sarcomas spread throughout the body. sciatica a painful condition in the region of the thighs and hips caused by neuritis of the sciatic nerve in the back of the thigh. sclerosis a hardening of body tissues or other parts, as by an excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue. See also plants —sclerotic, adj. scorbuticism the condition of having scurvy. —scorbutic, adj. semeiography Pathology. the science of description of symptoms. —semeiographer, n. —semeiographic, semeiographical, adj. semeiology symptomatology. sialism, sialismus excessive salivation, often a sign of poisoning. siderosis 1. a disease caused by the inhalation of iron particles. 2. an abnormal amount of iron deposits in the body. silicosis a disease of the lungs caused by prolonged inhalation of silica dust, an occupational disease of quarry-workers. sinapism the use of mustard piaster for medical purposes. solidism a doctrine that relates all diseases to the state of the solid parts of the body. —solidist, n. —solidistic, adj. somatism the belief that emotional and mental disorders are of physical origin and caused by bodily lesions. —somatist, n. somatogenic originating in the body or the cells of the body, as a disease. Also called physiogenic. spasmatomancy a form of divination used to foretell disease by observing spasms or twitching of the potential sufferer’s body. spasmophilia an extreme tendency to convulsions. —spasmophile, n. suppuration the formation and discharge of pus. Also called maturation. symptomatology 1. the branch of medical science that studies the symptoms of diseases. 2. the combined symptoms of a particular disease. Also called semeiology. —symptomatologic, symptomatological, adj. symptosis a gradual wasting away of the body or of any organ or part of the body. syntexis the wasting of the body, as in consumption. —syntectic, syntectical, adj. tabacism nicotinism. Alsospelled tabagism. tabacosis poisoning or respiratory disease caused by tobacco smoking. tabescence 1. the process of emaciation or wasting of the body. 2. the condition of being wasted or in decay, especially as a gradual process. —tabescent, adj. tabitude the state of being affected by tabes or by gradual wasting or decay. tachypnea abnormally rapid breathing or respiration. tarantism a variety of dancing mania, popularly thought to be caused by the bite of a tarantula and to be cured by dancing. thrombophilia a tendency to the occurrence of thrombosis or abnormal blood clotting. thyroidism a condition caused by overactivity of the thyroid gland or excessive doses of thyroid. tobaccoism nicotinism. Also tabacism, tabagism. tomomania an obsession with surgery. tomophobia an abnormal fear of surgical operations. traumatophilia a condition in which a patient takes a subconscious delight in injuries or surgical operations. trypanophobia an abnormal fear of vaccines and vaccination. Also called vaccinophobia. tympanism an accumulation of gas in the abdominal tract that causes a distension of the abdomen. —tympanitic, adj. typhomania the delirium that accompanies typhus or typhoid fever. uridrosis a condition in which urine or its constituents appear in the perspiration. vaccinophobia trypanophobia. valetudinarianism the condition of being overly concerned with one’s health. —valetudinarian, n., adj. vanillism an itching condition caused by excessive handling of vanilla. venereophobia cypridophobia. virilism 1. the early development of secondary masculine characteristics in a male. 2. the appearance of secondary masculine characteristics in a female. —virility, n. xanthoma a skin disease characterized by the formation of yellow neoplastic growths, affecting especially the eyelids. Also called xanthelasma. —xanthomatous, adj. xerostomia an abnormal dryness of the mouth, caused by lack of normal secretion of saliva. zoonosis any disease of lower animals that may be transmitted to man. —zoonotic, adj. zymosis Rare. 1. a process, similar to fermentation, thought to be the cause of infectious disease. 2. a disease so caused. See also fermentation —zymotic, adj.