- A very general problem in diffraction is the investigation of the distribution of light over a screen upon which impinge divergent or convergent spherical waves after passage through various diffracting apertures.
In experiment under ordinary circumstances it makes no difference whether the collecting lens is in front of or behind the diffracting aperture.
By the principle of energy the illumination over the entire focal plane must be equal to that over the diffracting area; and thus, in accordance with the suppositions by which (3) was obtained, its value when integrated from E= co to = -1-x, and from n = - oo to n = -1-oo should be equal to ab.
They are due to the interposition of small spherules of water, which act the part of diffracting obstacles.
In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and perpendicular to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.