Miletus especially was at an early period one of the most important commercial cities of Greece; and in its turn became the parent of numerous other colonies, which extended all around the shores of the Euxine and the Propontis from Abydus and Cyzicus to Trapezus and Panticapaeum.
The most important cities were Pergamum (q.v.) in the valley of the Caucus, and Cyzicus on the Propontis.
The two former are lost, and most scholars deny the authenticity of the Tabula on the ground of material and verbal anachronisms. They attribute it either to Cebes of Cyzicus (above) or to an anonymous author, of the ist century A.D., who assumed the character of Cebes of Thebes.
It is said that in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus (648-685) an architect named Callinicus, who had fled from Heliopolis in Syria to Constantinople, prepared a wet fire which was thrown out from siphons (TO bta Twv o wwwv ic4 €pbjsevov 7rUp u-ypov), and that by its aid the ships of the Saracens were set on fire at Cyzicus and their defeat assured.
Mithradates was forced to retire along the sea-coast till he halted before the strong city of Cyzicus, which he besieged.