There are many confraternities established in his honour throughout Christendom, and the number of "pious" biographies devoted to him would fill many volumes.
Catholic propaganda, revived by the monks and the Jesuits, and backed by the armed confraternities and by Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, now entrusted with a prominent part by the cardinal of Lorraine; Catherines complicity in the duke of Alvas terrible persecution in the Netherlands; and her attempt to capture Coligny and Cond at Noyers all combined to cause a fresh outbreak of hostilities in the west.
They were Fraticelli, Beghards, Lollards or other confraternities unrecognized by the church and in steady opposition to her government.
The jus episcopale which Luther afterwards claimed for the secular authorities had been practically exercised in Saxony and Brandenburg; cities and districts had framed police regulations which set aside ecclesiastical decrees about holidays and begging; the supervision of charity was passing from the hands of the church into those of laymen; and religious confraternities which did not take their guidance from the clergy were increasing.
The old monastic orders had had attached to their abbeys confraternities of lay men and women, going back in some cases to the 8th century.