Irio is London rocket, so-called because it sprang up after the fire of 1666), Brassica (cabbage and mustard), Diplotaxis (rocket), Cochlearia (scurvy-grass), Capsella (shepherd's purse), Lepidium (cress), Thlaspi (penny-cress), Cakile (sea rocket), Raphanus (radish), and others.
Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.
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