Clays and mineral waters are, however, widely distributed.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
The Keuper clays yield material for bricks.
The oak grows most luxuriantly on deep strong clays, calcareous marl or stiff loam, but will flourish in nearly any deep well-drained soil, excepting peat or loose sand; in marshy or moist places the tree may grow well for a time, but the timber is rarely sound; on hard rocky ground and exposed hillsides.
The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.