(chemistry) The act or process of chlorinating something; especially, the addition of chlorine to water to purify it, and a process for the extraction of gold by exposure of the auriferous material to chlorine gas.
Chlorination of this substance gave a monochloracetic acid; we will assume the chlorine atom to replace the b hydrogen atom.
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.
When treated with chlorine, pyrocatechol (1.2 or ortho-dioxybenzene) (1) yields a tetrachlor ortho-quinone, which suffers further chlorination to hexachlor-o-diketo-R-hexene (2).
Chlorination in glacial acetic acid solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (2) and, at a later stage, heptachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (3).
How would you define chlorination? Add your definition here.