The spores, which may be unior multi-cellular, are either abstricted free from the ends of hyphae (acrogenous), or formed from segments in their course (chlamydospores) or from protoplasm in their interior (endogenous).
As with other plants, so in fungi the essential process of fertilization consists in the fusion of two nuclei, but owing to the absence of well-marked sexual organs from many fungi, a peculiar interest attaches to certain nuclear fusions in the vegetative cells or in young spores of many forms. Thus in Ustilagineae the chlamydospores, and in Uredineae the teleutospores, each contain two nuclei when young, which fuse as the spores mature.
Gemmae, chlamydospores, resting-cells, cysts, &c.; (3) carpospores, produced by a more or less complex formative process, often in special fructifications, and subserving either or both multiplication and persistence, e.g.
Forms with septate thallus, and reproduction by chlamydospores which on germination produce sporidia; sexuality doubtful.
In addition to sporangia and the conidial spores referred to, some Mucorini show a peculiar mode of vegetative reproduction by means of gemmae or chlamydospores - i.e.