The Santa and Nepena valleys are separated by a desert 8 leagues in width, on the shores of which there is a good anchorage in the bay of Ferrol, where the port of Chimbote is the terminus of a railway.
The second-class ports are Tumbez, Talara, Pimentel, Chimbote, Samanco, Casma, Huacho, Cerro-Azul, Tambo de Mora Lomas and Chala, on the coast, Puno on Lake Titicaca, and Leticia on the Amazon near the western mouth of the Javary, Callao (qv.) is the chief port of the republic and monopolizes the greater part of its foreign trade.
Paita and Chimbote have good natural harbours, but the others, for the most part, are open roadsteads or unsheltered bays.
The principal copper-bearing districts are Chimbote, Cajamarca, Huancayo, Huaraz, Huallanca, Junin, Huancavelica, Ica, Arequipa, Andahuaylas and Cuzco - chiefly situated in the high, bleak regions of the Andes.
Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior.