King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
Emperor of Austria (1916-1918) and king of Hungary as Charles IV (1916-1918). Deposed after World War I, he twice failed to regain the Hungarian throne (1921).