Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.
Ordinary mortar failed in such positions; mortar made from lime prepared from limestones or chalks containing a little clay was found to stand; mortar made from lime mixed with trass or similar active silicious material was also found to stand.
In the west portion of the state, which belongs to the Cretaceous formation, chalks and a species of native quicklime are very prominent in the river bluffs.
The white and cream-coloured chalks are much used for building purposes, but the blue is usually too soft for exposure to the weather.
The beekeeper closes the hive, chalks a mark on it, and when he has time tears out its contents and burns it clean.