Pippin the Short and the early Carolings made use of intaglios, both actual antiques and copies from them; their successors had seals of ordinary types usually showing their busts.
By the Carolings, although no actual examples of the last have survived, by the emperors of Germany, and by other sovereigns and rulers.
In spite of his violent partisanship, for Richerus was an ardent upholder of the Carolings and French supremacy,-of great defects of style, and of an utter disregard of accuracy and truth, his Historiae has a unique value as giving us the only tolerably full account by a contemporary of the memorable revolution of 987, which placed the Capets on the throne of France.
Under the early Carolings the title count did not indicate noble birth.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.