A further revision of this code is stated to have been made by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, cites passages from the Basilica which differ from the text of the code as revised by the emperor Leo.
At first he followed a legal career at Pavia and Bologna, and when in 1499 he took his doctorate he was esteemed the most learned canonist in Europe.
Innocent was an eminent jurist and canonist, and never ceased to use his immense power in the service of the law.
VACARIUS (I1201200 ?), Italian civilian and canonist, the first known teacher of Roman law in England, was doubtless of the school of Bologna, though of a later generation than the hearers of Irnerius.
He falls back on the definition of an earlier canonist that if the woman eats out of the same dish with the man, and if he takes her to church, she may be presumed to be his wife; if, however, he sends her to draw water and dresses her in vile clothing, she is probably a concubine (Provinciale, ed.