Busoga and the western part of the Elgon district in this province have a regular West African climate - hot, moist and not over-healthy.
The Eastern province consists of well-forested, undulating land (Busoga) on the coast of the lake, a vast extent of marsh round the lake-like backwaters of the Victoria Nile (Lakes Ibrahim or Kioga, Kwania, &c.) and a more stony, open, grain-growing country (Bukedi, Lobor, Karamojo).
In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
There are indications of copper in Busoga, of gold in Unyoro.
Busoga and the Elgon district the flora is very West African in character.