Body, Human - Ologies & -Isms Definition
acrocephaly Medicine. having a high, pointed skull. Also called oxycephaly. —acrocephalic, acrocephalous, adj. acromegaly Medicine. a disease resulting from abnormal activity of the pituitary gland in which bones of the extremities are enlarged. —acromegalic, adj., n. adiposity the state of being obese. —adipose, adj. anatomy the study of the body and its parts. —anatomist, n. —anatomical, adj. androgynism, androgyny the possession of the characteristics of both sexes; hermaphroditism. Also androgyneity. —androgynous. adj. ankylophobia a dread of stiff or immobile joints. atonicity, atony lack of tone or tonus in the body; poor muscular condition. Cf. tonicity. —atonic, adj. bioastronautics the science that studies the effects of space travel on life, especially human life and the human body. bionics 1. the science or study of how man and animals perform tasks and solve certain types of problems involving use of the body. 2. the application of this study to the design of computer-driven and other automated equipment. 3. the application of this study to the design of artificial limbs, organs, and other prosthetic devices. —bionic, adj. biophysiology the branch of biology that studies the growth, morphology, and physiology of organs. —biophysiologist, n. biopsy the removal of a fragment of living tissue from the body for medical study. —bioptic, adj. bisexualism, bisexuality the condition of combining male and female sexual characteristics in one body. See also sex. —bisexual, adj. callipygia, callipygy the state of having well-shaped buttocks. Cf. steatopygia. —callipygian, callipygous. adj. carnosity Obsolete, fleshiness; obesity. caseation the change in consistency of tissue to a soft, cheeselike form, as in tuberculosis. claudication a limp or limping movement. clonism a state or condition in which the muscles undergo clonus, or rapid flexion and extension. —clonic, adj. coenesthesia, cenesthesia, cenesthesis the combination of organic sensations that comprise an individual’s awareness of bodily existence. —coenesthetic, cenesthetic, adj. deuteropathy an affection of the body that is secondary to and resulting from another affection. diarthrosis a joint or articulation, as that at the knee, which allows maximum movement. ectomorphy the condition or state of being an ectomorph, i.e., having a light, slender body structure. —ectomorphic, adj. emaceration Obsolete, the act of making or becoming lean; emaciation. endomorphy the condition or state of being an endomorph, i.e., having a rounded, stocky body structure with a tendency to obesity. Also called pyknic. —endomorphic, adj. epicenism the state or quality of combining characteristics of both sexes. —epicenity, n. —epicene, adj. excrescence 1. a normal outgrowth of the body, as hair, fingernails. 2. an abnormal outgrowth, as a corn, wart, etc. —excrescent, adj. formication a body sensation that feels as if ants are crawling over the skin. gynandrism hermaphroditism. Also gynandry. —gynandroid, n., adj. gynecomastism an excessive development of mammary glands in males. Also gynecomastia, gynecomasty. hermaphroditism the presence on an individual body of both male and female sex organs. Also called androgynism, gynandrism, gynandry. —hermaphrodite, n. —hermaphroditic, adj. hyperkinesia, hyperkinesis a condition of the body in which muscular movement is abnormally agitated. —hyperkinetic, adj. hypertrophy excessive growth of tissue or of an organ, independent of and out of proportion to the rest of the body. Cf. hypoplasia. —hypertrophic, hypertrophical, hypertrophous, adj. hypoplasia a condition in which tissue or an organ of the body fails to grow to normal size. Cf. hypertrophy. —hypoplastic, adj. hypothermia a condition in which the body temperature is abnormally low. —hypothermal, adj. ichor a thin watery substance discharged from wounds or ulcers. See also god and gods. —ichorous, adj. ictus Medicine. 1. a stroke or beat, as the beat of the pulse. See also verse. 2. a paralytic stroke. jactitation Medicine. twitching of the muscles or of other parts of the body. Also called jactation. kinesiology Medicine. the study of the motions of the human body, especially as they apply to therapy through corrective exercise. Also called kinestherapy. —kinesiologic, kinesiological, adj. kyphosis an abnormal condition of the spine in which it has a hump, kyphos, or curvature. —kyphotic, adj. leptosomy ectomorphy. —leptosome, n. —leptosomic, leptosomatic, adj. lordosis any abnormal curvature of the bones, especially forward curvature of the spine, resulting in a hollow in the back. —lordotic, adj. macrosomatia the condition of having an abnormally large body. —macrosomatous, adj. marasmus 1. a wasting away or atrophying of the body in the absence of disease. 2. the progressive emaciation that results from malnutrition. —marasmic, adj. mesomorphy the condition or state of being a mesomorph, i.e., having an athletic body structure. —mesomorphic, adj. microcephalism the condition of having an abnormally small head. Also microcephaly. —microcephalous, microcephalic, adj. myoatrophy atrophy or wasting away of the muscles. myotonia a condition of tonic muscle spasm or rigidity of the muscles. —myotonic, adj. necrosis the death or decay of body tissue, the result of loss of blood supply or trauma. —necrotic, adj. neoplasia the growth or formation of aneoplasm. —neoplastic, adj. neoplasm any abnormal formation or growth of tissue, as a tumor. —neoplastic, adj. orthopraxy, orthopraxis the use of mechanical apparatus or devices to correct bodily deformities. orthosis the process of correcting bodily or mental distortion. —orthotic, adj. osmidrosis an abnormal condition in which the sweat has a very strong odor. osteoporosis the rarefaction of bone, resulting in abnormally porous and weak bony tissue. oxycephaly acrocephaly. —oxycephalic, oxycephalous, adj. oxygeusia extreme acuteness or sensitivity of the sense of taste. paralysis abnormal loss of muscle function or of sensation. —paralytic, n., adj. paresis a state or process of partial paralysis. —paretic, adj. paresthesia, paraesthesia any abnormal physical sensation, as itching, a tickling feeling, etc. —paresthetic, paraesthetic, adj. pectoriloquy the transmission of the voice through the chest wall, so that it can be picked up by direct listening against the chest or with a stethoscope. It frequently indicates an abnormality in the lungs. —pectoriloquial, pectoriloquous, adj. phocomelia a deformity, usually congenital, in which the extremities of the limbs are abnormally short. pinguidity the state or quality of being fat or unctuous. —pinguid, adj. pneumology the scientific study of the human respiratory system. —pneumological, adj. polymastism the condition of having more than two breasts. Also polymastia. —polymastic, adj. psychroesthesia an abnormal condition in which part of the body, though actually warm, is felt as cold. pulsimeter, pulsometer an instrument for measuring the rate of the pulse. radiosensibility sensitivity to the effects of radiation, as of parts of the body. Also radiosensitivity. —radiosensible, adj. rhigosis the feeling or sensation of coldness. rictus the opening of the mouth, especially in a grimace or expression of pain. rotundity the state or quality of being roundor plump. —rotund, adj. schematomancy divination of a person’s future from observation of physical appearance. sclerosis a hardening of body tissues or other parts, as by an excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue. See also plants. —sclerotic, adj. scoliosis lateral curvature of the spine. —scoliotic, adj. somatology the branch of anthropology that studies man’s physical characteristics. Also physical anthropology, somatics. —somatologie, somatological, adj. somatotype a particular type of human physique. Cf. ectomorphy, endomorphy, mesomorphy. steatopygia, steatopygy excessive fatness of the hips and buttocks. Cf. callipygia. —steatopygic, adj. syntexis the wasting of the body, as in consumption. —syntectic, syntectical, adj. tabes any disease that wastes the body; atrophy. —tabetic, n., adj. tabescence 1. the process of emaciation or wasting of the body. 2. the condition of being wasted or in decay, especially as a gradual process. —tabescent, adj. tabitude the state of being affected by tabes or by gradual wasting or decay. tonicity the state or quality of muscular tone or tension. —tonic, adj. torticollis a condition characterized by involuntary contraction of the cervical muscles, causing a twisting of the neck; wryneck. tricrotism the condition of having three arterial beats for every one heart-beat, as in certain pulses. —tricrotic, adj. turgescence, turgescency 1. the process of swelling. 2. the state of being swollen. —turgescent, adj. valgus 1. an abnormally turned condition of a bone in part of the human body, especially the leg. 2. the condition of being bow-legged. vellication a twitching, as of a part of the body; convulsive movement of a muscle. ventripotence obesity, particularly in the region of the stomach. —ventripotent, adj. ventrosity Rare. largeness of the belly; corpulence, especially in the abdominal region. xeransis a dried or desiccated condition of the body. Also xerosis. —xerantic, adj. xerotes a dry condition or tendency to dryness of the body. —xerotic, adj. zonesthesia a feeling or sensation of constriction in the body, as from wearing a tight belt. zooplasty the process of surgically grafting tissue from a lower animal onto the human body. —zooplastic, adj.