- Billiton became of note in 1853 with a production of 40 tons, which increased to 6000 in 1900 and has since declined to about 3000 tons in 1905.
- Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka, Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Bachian, Timor and Borneo.
- The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.
- Ments; the Arabs are nearly all traders, as are some of the Chinese, but a large number of the latter are labourers in the Sumatra tobacco plantations and the tin mines of Banka, Billiton, &c. The bulk of the natives are agriculturists.
- In the distribution of the rainfall, as dependent on the direction of the winds, the following parts of Sumatra must be distinguished: (r) south-east Sumatra, on which, as on Banka and Billiton, the heaviest rainfall occurs during the north-west monsoon, the annual volume of rainfall increasing from 98.4 in.