But the permanent settlements date from the revelation of Idaho's mineral resources in 1860, when the Coeur d'Alene, Palouses and Nez Perces were in the North, and the Blackfoots, Bannocks and Shoshones in the South.
Between 1857 and 1862 outbreaks were frequent, and on the 2 9 th of January 1863 occurred the battle of Bear river, where some 300 Shoshones and Bannocks and about 200 of Colonel P. E.
After the peace he served as commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands from 1865 until 1874; in 1872 he was special commissioner to the hostile Apaches of New Mexico and Arizona; in1874-1881was in command of the Department of the Columbia and conducted the campaign against Chief Joseph in 1877 and that against the Bannocks and Piutes in 1878.
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