- 465?-424? ; king of ancient Persia: son of Xerxes I
- 404?-358 ; king of ancient Persia
- (historical) the name of several Persian kings
From Latin Artaxerxēs, from Ancient Greek Ἀρταξέρξης (Artakserksēs), from Old Persian (Artaxšaça, “whose rule is through truth”). Related to Old Armenian Արտաշէս (Artašēs).