The risk of HIV transmission from a pregnant woman to her baby can be significantly reduced with the use of antiretroviral drugs taken during pregnancy, labor, and delivery and administered to the baby for the first six weeks of life.
African Americans with HIV infection are less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy, less likely to receive prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia, and less likely to be receiving protease inhibitors than other persons with HIV.
Dybul, M. et al. "A proof-of-concept study of short-cycle intermittent antiretroviral therapy with a once-daily regimen of didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for the treatment of chronic HIV infection."
In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time from HIV infection to the development of AIDS-related symptoms has been approximately 10 to 12 years.
The newly exposed person must begin four weeks of treatment with antiretroviral drugs, which usually prevents the virus from taking hold, according to the CDC.