The policy of state aid to internal improvements found advocates very early in spite of the Republican affiliations of the state, but a definite programme was not laid out until 1829, when commissioners for internal improvements were appointed and an expenditure of $150,000 was authorized.
In 1903 a law (revised in 1908) was passed providing for the conduct at public cost of primary elections for the nomination of nearly all elective officers, and for the nomination of delegates to party nominating conventions; nominations for primary elections are made by petitions signed by at least ten voters (except in very small election districts) who make affidavit as to their party affiliations; the nominee thus indorsed must file a letter of acceptance.
For the reasons just given these figures do not accurately indicate the religious affiliations of the population of the United States.
A free lance, an independent, a journalist, or a preacher, without definite political affiliations, may create public opinion, but a legislator or an administrator must belong to a party.
The " transcendental movement," which sprang out of German affiliations and produced as one of its results the well-known community of Brook Farm (1841-1847), under the leadership of Dr George Ripley, was a Massachusetts growth, and in passing away it left, instead of traces of an organization, a sentiment and an aspiration for higher thinking which gave Emerson his following.