Napoleon IIINapoleon III
Originally Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Known as Louis Napoleon. 1808–1873.
Emperor of the French (1852–1870). A nephew of Napoleon I, he led the opposition to Louis Philippe and became president of the Second Republic (1848–1852). After proclaiming himself emperor (1852), he instituted reforms and rebuilt Paris. His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico (1861–1867) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), which resulted in his deposition.